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ISLAMIC SPAIN

ANDALUSI SOCIETY

THREE FAITHS, ONE LAND

ARTS & SCIENCE

TIMELINES

FILM & OUTREACH

FOR TEACHERS

Related Links

Al-Andalus
Architecture
Agriculture
Astronomy
Botany
Calligraphy
Cuisine
Engineering
Games
Geography
Glass
Leatherwork
Mathematics
Medicine
Metallurgy
Music
Navigation
Pharmacology
Physics & Optics
Surgery
Zoology

Al-Andalus

1001 Inventions. "Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World." http://www.1001inventions.com

Saudi Aramco World Magazine, Al-Andalus Compilation Issue. 55:7. 2004. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200407

Architecture

Bodner, B. Lynn. “Constructing and Classifying Designs of Al-Andalus.” Mathematics Department, Monmouth University. http://mathematics.monmouth.edu/coursenotes/bodner/papers/2003/ISAMA03.htm

Saoud, Rabah; Salim al Hassani; and Ahmed Salem. “A Review on Architecture in Islamic Spain and North Africa (756-1500 AD).” Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization, Jan. 2002. www.MuslimHeritage.com

“Giralda Towers in the United States. http://www.nyc-architecture.com/ARCH/ARCH-notes-municipal.htm

Influence of Andalusian and other Muslim craft centers on the development of stained glass. http://www.stainedglass.org/html/SGAAhistorySG.htm

Agriculture

Glick, Thomas. Irrigation and Society in Medieval Valencia. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970. http://libro.uca.edu/irrigation/irrigation.htm

See articles on “Agriculture,” at http://www.muslimheritage.com

Astronomy

Lunde, Paul. Science: The Islamic Legacy: Science in the Golden Age. Saudi Aramco World Magazine. 33:3. May/June 1982. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198203/science.the.islamic.legacy-science.in.the.golden.age.htm

Saliba, George. “Whose Science is Arabic Science in Renaissance Europe?” © George Saliba - Columbia University. http://www.columbia.edu/~gas1/project/visions/case1/sci.1.html

Botany

Harvey, John H. “Garden Plants of Islamic Spain: A Fresh Look.” Garden History. 20:1. Spring 1992, pp. 71-82. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0307-243%28199221%2920%3A1%3C71%3AGPOMSA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G

Gardens, Nature, and Conservation in Islam, selected quotes. www.muslimheritage.com

Calligraphy

Sakkal, Muhammad. “The Art of Arabic Calligraphy.” Sakkal Design. http://sakkal.com/ArtArabicCalligraphy.html

Cuisine

Tor Eigeland. “The Cuisine of Al-Andalus.” Saudi Aramco World Magazine. 40:5. September/October 1989. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198905/the.cuisine.of.Al-Andalus.htm

Rachel Laudan. “The Mexican Kitchen’s Islamic Connection.” Saudi Aramco Magazine, 55:3. May/June 2004. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200403/the.mexican.kitchen.s.islamic.connection.htm

Clifford A. Wright. “Did You Know? Some facts about Mediterranean food history.” History of Macaroni. http://www.cliffordawright.com/history/macaroni.html

Dame Katja Davidova Orlova Khazarina of Robakovna. “Medieval Pasta: History, Preparation, and Recipes.” http://www.katjaorlova.com/PastaClass.html

Engineering

Muslim Heritage. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics

Games

“Medieval Islamic Games.” History for Kids. http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/islam/games/index.htm

1001 Inventions online exhibition at www.1001inventions.com

Geography

Paul Lunde. "Al-Faraghani and the 'Short Degree.'" The Middle East and the Age of Discovery Aramco World Magazine Exhibition Issue, 43:3. May/June 1992. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199203/pillars.of.hercules.sea.of.darkness.htm#al-farghani.and.the.short.degree.

Salah Zaimeche. “A Review of Muslim Geography.” Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization. www.muslimheritage.com

Glass

Grabar, Oleg. “Qasr al-Hayr, Syria (report on the excavation of an 8th century Islamic city).” The Kelsey Online. http://www.umich.edu/~kelseydb/Excavation/Qasr_al-Hayr.html

Rualt, Stephane. Via Vitro Project. American Glass Guild. www.americanglassguild.org/new_page_15.htm

Schneider, Michael S. Chartres Rose Window Geometry (how the design was created). http://www.constructingtheuniverse.com/Chartres%20Window.html

“History of Stained Glass.” Stained Glass Association of America. http://www.stainedglass.org

“Rose window.” Allexperts.com. http://en.allexperts.com/e/r/ro/rose_window.htm

“Stained Glass.” Allexperts.com. http://en.allexperts.com/e/s/st/stained_glass.htm

“Stained Glass.” Artlex.com. http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/s/stainedglass.html

“The History of The Glass Industry During the Islamic Era.” Egyptian Government. http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/glass.htm

Leatherwork

Incunabula: Dawn of Western Printing, “Bookbinding and Decoration.” National Diet Library, Japan. http://www.ndl.go.jp/incunabula/e/chapter4/index.html

“The Art of Leather: History of Leather.” DeNovo.com. http://www.denovoleathers.com/dl_education.pdf

Mathematics

Bodner, B. Lynn. “Constructing and Classifying Designs of Al-Andalus.” Mathematics Department, Monmouth University. http://mathematics.monmouth.edu/coursenotes/bodner/papers/2003/ISAMA03.htm

Burnett, Charles. “Leonard of Pisa (Fibonacci) and Arabic Arithmetic.” Warburg Institute. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=472

Rehmeyer, Julie J. Ancient Islamic Penrose Tiles. Science News Online. 171:8. February 24, 2007. http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20070224/mathtrek.asp

Medicine

“Medicine,” The Islamic World to 1600. The University of Calgary, 1998. The Applied History Research Group. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/learning

“Islamic Medical Manuscripts” and “Medieval Islam.” National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/arabichome.html

Metallurgy

“Islamic Arms and Armor.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Timeline of Art History. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/isaa/hd_isaa.htm

“Islamic Contributions to Science and Math: Industrial Progress.” http://www.netmuslims.com/info/progress.html

Music

Ferreira, Manuel Pedro. “Andalusian Music and the Cantigas de Santa Maria.” http://www.fcsh.unl.pt/cesem/publicacoesonline/artigos/andalusianmusicmpf.pdf

Saoud, Rabah. “The Arab Contribution to Music of the Western World.” Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?TaxonomyTypeID=13

Navigation

Ancient Navigation and Sailing. Nabataea.net. Canbooks, 2002. http://nabataea.net/sailing.html

Pharmacology

“Islamic Culture and the Medical Arts: Pharmaceutics and Alchemy.” National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/islamic_medical/islamic_11.html

“Islam, Spain and the History of Technology.” History of Technology, San Jose State University. http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/pabacker/history/islam.htm

Physics & Optics

Al-Haytham, Ibn. Scientists and Discovery Series. Museum Victoria, Australia. http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/scidiscovery/scientists/al_haytham.asp

Hogendijk, Jan P. and A.I. Sabra, eds. The Enterprise of Science in Islam. Cambridge, 2003. http://www.ais.org/~bsb/Herald/Previous/95/science.html

Lienhard, John H. Engines of Our Ingenuity. Radio episodes online. http://www.uh.edu/engines/engines.htm
See episode #999 at http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi999.htm

Sabra, Abdelhamid I. Ibn al-Haytham. Harvard Magazine September-October 2003. www.harvardmagazine.com/on-line/090351.html

Surgery

“Islamic Culture and the Medical Arts.” National Library of Medicine. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/islamic_medical/islamic_09.html

Zoology

Paul Lunde. “The Book of Animals.” Saudi Aramco World. 33:3. May/June 1982. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198203/science.the.islamic.legacy-the.book.of.animals.htm

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DISCLAIMER: This purpose of this website is to provide supplemental information to the Cities of Light film and is not intended as a scholarly or academic resource. For scholars' sources, see the Recommended Readings section on this site. Articles reprinted from other sources reflect the views and opinions of the authors, and may not necessarily mirror those of UPF.